‘To haunt does not mean to be present, and it is necessary to introduce
haunting into the very construction of a concept,’ he wrote.
(Jacques Derrida, Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning and the New International, Routledge, 1994, p202)
‘Capitalist societies,’ Derrida writes, ‘can always heave a sigh of
relief and say to themselves: communism is finished, but it did not take place, it was only a ghost. They
do no more than disavow the undeniable itself: a ghost never dies, it remains always to come and to
(Specters of Marx, p123)